In Part 3 I wrote about encrypted DNS, how it only half-solves the privacy problem because the secure https request to the IP Address your DNS Lookup gave you includes the domain of the server you are trying to connect to. Your DNS queries are now encrypted so that nobody can look at the domain you are looking up, your https connections contain the same information. So DNS over HTTPS is...
You've probably heard about VPN's (Virtual Private Networks)/ They essentially allow you to run a "private network" on-top of the existing Internet. There are two common use cases:
You need to access a company network from home. A VPN allows you to pretend to be part of that network from anywhere in the world.
You need to pretend that you are in another part of the world because the site / service you are trying to access takes your source IP address, looks it up and figures out that you are not in the UK and no you can't watch the BBC — not that anybody actually does this of course.
There is another thing you could use a VPN for and that is to avoid tracking. If your ISP is watching all the domain names you are connecting to, then if you run a VPN to somewhere else they won't see them. Of course the company hosting the VPN will see the information and any networking infrastructure between the VPN and the final server will see that information too — It's not unknown for the request to hop across 10-20 network routers belonging to lots of different companies / countries before it gets to the destination. That's a lot of people to trust. The contents of your request and the response are encrypted, but where the request is destined and where it is coming from is out in the open.
Well if you use a VPN then the source address is hidden, which is another good reason to use a VPN.
Next, VPN, Warp and more